Received: 08 August 2008 / Accepted: 13 October 2008
Inconsistent estimates of diversity between traditional and DNA taxonomy in bdelloid rotifersDownload PDFAbstract
Microscopic animals offer great potential in the analysis of spatial patterns of diversity, as they may provide different scenarios for biogeography and macroecology, but understanding diversity of microscopic animals is hampered by lack of comprehensive data on species distribution and by unreliable taxonomy. DNA taxonomy may prove useful in obtaining reliable data in the future, but we still do not know to what extent traditional and DNA taxonomy can be comparable for microscopic organisms. In this paper, we compare analyses and estimates of diversity at the level of species assemblage between traditional and DNA taxonomy for a group of moss-dwelling microscopic animals, bdelloid rotifers. The results are straightforward: Traditional species identification underestimates diversity by factors of 2 at the local and 2.5 at the regional scale. We discuss the results in the framework of current hypotheses on the distribution of microscopic animals.
Received: 25 July 2008 / Accepted: 31 October 2008
Molecular data confirm family status for the Tryonicus–Lauraesilpha group (Insecta: Blattodea: Tryonicidae)Download PDFAbstract
Family status was recently proposed for the Tryonicus–Lauraesilpha group (Insecta: Blattodea: Tryonicidae), which had been assigned to Blattidae before. In order to test this hypothesis, a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Blattodea was conducted using the 12S and H3 genes. The results show that Tryonicidae indeed form a lineage distinct from Blattidae. The results are compared to the previous classifications and phylogenetic hypotheses (morphology- and molecular-based). It is suggested that the Polyzosteriinae tribe Methanini should remain in Polyzosteriinae (Blattodea: Blattidae).
Received: 22 January 2009 / Accepted: 15 April 2009
Discovery of Novocriniidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from cold-water corals in the Porcupine Seabight (NE Atlantic), with description of a new species of Atergopedia Martínez Arbizu & Moura, 1998Download PDFAbstract
The female of Atergopedia longicaudata sp. n. is described from dead cold-water coral fragments collected from the Porcupine Seabight (NE Atlantic). The new species is the fourth representative of the family Novocriniidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida); it can be distinguished from its congeners by the elongate caudal rami and the ancestral armature on enp-3 of P1. Rediscovery of Atergopedia vetusta Martínez Arbizu & Moura, 1998, originally described from the Arctic Barents Sea, results in corrections to the species description. Archaeotisbe confluenta Kornev & Chertoprud, 2008 is transferred to the genus Atergopedia Martínez Arbizu & Moura, 1998, and Archaeotisbe Kornev & Chertoprud, 2008 is newly treated as a junior synonym of Atergopedia. Diagnoses (as ground patterns) for the two novocriniid genera (Atergopedia and Novocrinia Huys & Iliffe, 1998) are provided, and autapomorphies are indicated.
Received: 22 October 2008 / Accepted: 21 January 2009
Historical biogeography and character evolution of Cistaceae (Malvales) based on analysis of plastid rbcL and trnL-trnF sequencesDownload PDFAbstract
Cistaceae consist of eight genera and about 180 species. Some taxonomic limits and relationships within the family remain unresolved when relying exclusively on morphological data. In the present study, a phylogeny was reconstructed and divergence times were estimated for 47 species representing various groups in Cistaceae and using coding (rbcL) and spacer (trnL-trnF) sequences of plastid DNA. The firm set of morphological synapomorphies that indicates the monophyly of the family is supported by both Bayesian and parsimony analyses. Five major lineages can be distinguished within the Cistaceae: (1) an early-diverging lineage containing Fumana species; (2) the New World Lechea clade; (3) the Helianthemum s.l. clade, containing two sister groups, one of species from the New World (Crocanthemum, Hudsonia) and the other with species from the Old World (Helianthemum s. str.); (4) the Tuberaria clade; and (5) a cohesive complex consisting of Halimium and Cistus species. Evolutionary shifts in 12 key characters of Cistaceae are inferred based on the most plausible phylogenetic hypothesis. Reconstructing the evolution of ovule position supports anatropous ovules as the ancestral condition within the Cistaceae, which is currently found only in Fumana. The Cistus-Halimium assemblage is consistently obtained as a natural clade and further supported by a cytological synapomorphy (chromosome number n=9). Optimisation of ancestral distribution areas and estimates of divergence times reveal an early divergence (10.17–18.51Ma) of the Mediterranean-European genera, which may be related to subtropical vegetation, as complemented by paleobotanical data. In addition, the occurrence of multiple, independent migration events from the Old World to America between the Middle Miocene (8.44–14.7Ma; Lechea) and the Upper Miocene (5.15–9.20Ma; Crocanthemum/Hudsonia), and to the Canary Islands in the Pleistocene is inferred. We argue that the Mediterranean basin has been the main centre of differentiation of Cistaceae.
Received: 28 February 2008 / Accepted: 29 September 2008
Desmotersia levinae, a new genus and new species of free-living nematode from bathyal oxygen minimum zone sediments off Callao, Peru, with discussion on the classification of the genus Richtersia (Chromadorida: Selachinematidae)Download PDFAbstract
Desmotersia levinae gen. n., sp. n. is proposed, based on material found in bathyal oxygen minimum zone sediments off the coast of Peru. Desmotersia closely resembles Richtersia in the animals’ general appearance and in spiny ornamentation of the body cuticle, but clearly differs in stoma structure and by the presence of a dorsal tooth. The systematic positions of the two genera are discussed, since Desmotersia apparently forms a link between Selachinematidae and Desmodoridae. Desmotersia levinae is characterized by a variety of spiny ornamentations anteriorly formed by bipartite spines arranged into a fin-like picket fence, by a head with an asymmetrical cephalic capsule, presence of two closely spaced ventral longitudinal rows of copulatory thorns, and by 2–4 ventral thorns in mid-tail positions on the male. The interaction between the new species and its habitat is discussed.
Received: 13 November 2008 / Accepted: 30 January 2009
The female genitalic region and gonoducts of Embioptera (Insecta), with general discussions on female genitalia in insectsDownload PDFAbstract
The exoskeleton of the female postabdomen, including the external genitalia and ectodermal gonoducts, was studied in five phylogenetically distant species of Embioptera from the genera Metoligotoma (Australembiidae), Clothoda (Clothodidae), Aposthonia (Oligotomidae), Biguembia (Archembiidae), and Enveja (without family assignment). The morphological interpretation of the embiopteran postabdominal sclerites and gonoduct components is discussed in a wider context of Insecta. This includes some issues of general importance, such as effects of the translocation of the gonopore from venter 7 to venter 8, the definition of gonopore location, and the definition of the vagina. We then compare the five study species regarding their postabdominal morphology, and define characters that can be used for future phylogenetic and taxonomic work on Embioptera; the corresponding character states are presented in a matrix. Important results on Embioptera are as follows. (1) The gonopore appears to lie in the posterior part of venter 8, but this apparent location probably only results from the median parts of venter 8 having been formed from an extension of venter 7. (2) The ectodermal gonoducts consist of a common oviduct and an extended oviduct, while there is either no vagina or only a very short and wide one. (3) In contrast to earlier reports, accessory glands are absent from venter 9 (although there may be vestiges in Enveja). (4) No support was found in female genital characters for the conventional view that the Clothodidae are the sister group of the remaining Embioptera; instead, we report several character states suggesting Metoligotoma as sister to the remaining Embioptera.
Received: 15 October 2008 / Accepted: 15 January 2009
Influence of flower functionality and pollination system on the pollen size-pistil length relationshipDownload PDFAbstract
Twenty-five biotically pollinated plants of the Chaco Serrano Forest (Córdoba, Argentina) were studied in order to analyze whether ‘flower functionality’ is related to the relationship between pollen size and pistil length. Because flower functionality may act on the respective mean values of pollen size and pistil length rather than on intraspecific variation in these traits, we expected (1) a high positive correlation between pollen size and pistil length in a set of sympatric species, independent of their degree of pollination specialization or generalization; and (2) no interspecific correlation between the coefficients of variation (CVs) of those traits. On the other hand, on the assumption that pollinators are influencing the variation in floral traits (e.g. in pistil length) we expected lower mean phenotypic variation of pollen size and pistil length in pollination-specialist plants than in pollination-generalist ones. A positive correlation between pollen size and pistil length was found for the set of species, but not between the CVs of these traits. This trend was maintained when pollination-specialist plants were analyzed separately, but no statistical significance was obtained for the correlation in pollination-generalist plants. Contrary to our expectations, pollination-specialist plants did not show less mean intraspecific variation in floral traits than pollination-generalist plants. Therefore, the relationship between pollen size and pistil length among species suggests that the pollination system may be of less importance as a selective force than flower functionality.
Received: 27 June 2008 / Accepted: 25 September 2008
Zoanthids (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) from shallow waters of the southern Chilean fjord region, with descriptions of a new genus and two new speciesDownload PDFAbstract
The taxonomy of the order Zoantharia (=Zoanthidea=Zoanthiniaria) is greatly hampered by the paucity of diagnostic morphological features. To facilitate discrimination between similar zoanthids, a combination of morphological and molecular analyses is applied here. The three most abundant zoanthid species in shallow waters of the southern Chilean fjord region are described. Comparison with other zoanthids using molecular markers reveals that two of them are new to science; these are described as Mesozoanthus fossii gen. n., sp. n. and Epizoanthus fiordicus sp. n. Their representatives grow on rocky substratum and do not live in symbiosis with demosponges. In the less abundant M. fossii, animals are greyish in colour and resemble members of Parazoanthus in growth form. Individual polyps can be up to 35mm long. The more abundant E. fiordicus are also greyish; the polyps arise from thin stolons and reach only 12mm in length. The third species studied is Parazoanthus elongatus McMurrich, 1904. For these three Chilean zoanthid species, in-situ photographs are presented as well as information on distribution, habitat and associated species. Establishment of the Mesozoanthus gen. n. is of particular importance to taxonomy in the chaotic suborder Macrocnemina.
Received: 07 November 2008 / Accepted: 15 December 2008
A new sponge-inhabiting amphipod species (Crustacea, Gammaridea, Sebidae) from the Veracruz Coral Reef System, southwestern Gulf of MexicoDownload PDFAbstract
A new species of the genus Seba Bate (Amphipoda: Sebidae) is described from the Veracruz Coral Reef System, Veracruz, south-western Gulf of Mexico. The specimens were found in association with a sponge, Ircinia fistularis, at depths from 8 to 10m. Seba alvarezi n. sp. can be distinguished from closely related species mainly by the presence of a short, two-articulated accessory flagellum, three apical setae on article 3 of the mandible palp, and by the absence of apical setae on the inner lobe of maxilla 1. The new species is compared to closely related species in the family, and an identification key to the species of Seba known from the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea is given.
Received: 18 July 2008 / Accepted: 23 January 2009
Epipharynx shape as a tool to reveal differentiation patterns between insect sister species: insights from Onthophagus taurus and O. illyricus (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)Download PDFAbstract
We evaluated the potential of the adult epipharynx to reveal interspecific differentiation patterns in closely related Onthophagus species. Although easy to analyse, this structure has received little attention in Scarabaeidae taxonomy, probably because a qualitative inspection of its shape often does not yield differences between congeneric species. The polyphenic sister species Onthophagus taurus Schreber, 1759 and O. illyricus Scopoli, 1763 were chosen as a case study. They are extremely similar, to the extent that in some cases they cannot be identified unambiguously without the help of biomolecular analysis. In this study, a combination of linear measurements and a landmark-based approach was employed to quantify inter- and intraspecific shape variation in the epipharynx of specimens sampled at the same study site. Our results showed that the epipharynx is a monomorphic structure: its shape does not vary as a function of sex or male phenotype. In males, epipharynx shape does not change with head shape or horn length. The close proximity of the epipharynx to the horns and the synchronous developmental patterns of these two structures suggest that a developmental trade-off may act between them. Despite these predisposing conditions, however, our results suggest that epipharynx size is not subject to costs associated with horn development, and that the trait is highly canalised. Surprisingly, when using geometric morphometrics the epipharynx appears to be a better tool than genitalia for discriminating between the two sister species.
Received: 21 November 2006 / Accepted: 16 June 2008
Draconematidae (Nematoda) from cold-water corals in the Porcupine Seabight: The genus Tenuidraconema Decraemer, 1989Download PDFAbstract
A new species of Tenuidraconema Decraemer, 1989 is described from a cold-water coral degradation zone in the Porcupine Seabight (NE Atlantic). Tenuidraconema microsperma sp. n. is distinguished from all other species of Tenuidraconema by the combination of 10 CAT located posterior to the amphidial fovea, SlAT alternately long and short, male amphidial fovea composed of an inner and an outer loop, with ventral arm of inner loop as long as high, external labial sensilla papilliform, compact, jagged sperm cells with large, refractive inclusions, the shape of the gubernaculum and the number of tail rings. Additional descriptive data are provided for T. koreense Rho & Kim, 2004, from specimens found in the Porcupine Seabight. Additionally, the fourth-stage juvenile is described for the first time, the species diagnosis is emended, and the biogeography in the North Atlantic is discussed. The diagnosis of Tenuidraconema is emended, and a dichotomic identification key to the five included species is provided.
Received: 11 December 2008 / Accepted: 12 March 2009
Devonohexapodus bocksbergensis is a synonym of Wingertshellicus backesi (Euarthropoda) – no evidence for marine hexapods living in the Devonian Hunsrück SeaDownload PDFAbstract
The Devonian Hunsrück Slate fossil Devonohexapodus bocksbergensis Haas, Waloszek & Hartenberger, 2003 has been interpreted as a stem-lineage representative of the Hexapoda, implying their marine origin and independent terrestrialisation within the ‘Atelocerata’. Devonohexapodus bocksbergensis was based on a single specimen embedded in a lateral position. Reinvestigation of that holotype and of all known specimens of the Hunsrück Slate arthropod Wingertshellicus backesi Briggs & Bartels, 2001 demonstrates that all this material represents a single species. The latter is redescribed, its taxonomic diagnosis is emended, and the name Devonohexapodus bocksbergensis is treated as a junior synonym of Wingertshellicus backesi. The phylogenetic position of W. backesi neither is that of a stem-lineage representative of Hexapoda, nor does it fall within the crown group Mandibulata. The Hunsrück Slate provides no evidence of an independent terrestrialisation within the ‘Atelocerata’ or of a marine origin of the Hexapoda.
Received: 15 October 2008 / Accepted: 23 October 2008
Siamspinops, a new selenopid spider genus from Southeast Asia (Arachnida, Araneae)Download PDFAbstract
Examination of a collection of selenopid spiders from Southeast Asia resulted in recognition of a new genus, Siamspinops gen. nov., which is erected to accommodate four new Southeast Asian species. Siamspinops spinosissimus sp. nov. (the type species; the male and female are described), S. spinosus sp. nov. (female) and S. allospinosus sp. nov. (female) are recorded from Thailand, S. spinescens sp. nov. (female) from the Malay Peninsula.
Received: 08 August 2008 / Accepted: 06 March 2009
Cryptic diversity in a Eurasian water snake (Natrix tessellata, Serpentes: Colubridae): Evidence from mitochondrial sequence data and nuclear ISSR-PCR fingerprintingDownload PDFAbstract
The dice snake, Natrix tessellata (Laurenti, 1768), is a suitable study organism to address questions of Eurasian phylogeography due to its wide Palearctic distribution. We analysed complete mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences and nuclear ISSR-PCR fingerprints of more than 300 specimens representing nearly the entire geographic range. Nine major mitochondrial lineages were discovered based on mtDNA sequences. The three most basal lineages comprised populations from Iran, Jordan–Egypt, and Greece, respectively. Other lineages were associated with samples from the Turkish peninsula, the Caucasus, the Aral Sea, and eastern Kazakhstan. A sister-group relationship was found between two lineages from Crete and the European mainland. Assuming an evolutionary rate of 1.35% sequence divergence per million years, among-lineage p-distances of 1.7–8.4% suggest that intraspecific differentiation might date back as far as the Miocene/Pliocene transition 5–6 million years ago. The pattern of genetic differentiation in mitochondrial phylogeny with regard to Asia Minor and the region of the Aral Sea was not congruent with the results of the nuclear ISSR-PCR analyses, and suggests admixing within some mtDNA clades at contact zones. The taxonomic implications of the high intraspecific variation in the dice snake are discussed.
Received: 16 August 2008 / Accepted: 27 February 2009
A phylogenetic hypothesis for Asilidae based on a total evidence analysis of morphological and DNA sequence data (Insecta: Diptera: Brachycera: Asiloidea)Download PDFAbstract
An hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships of Asilidae and its constituent taxa is presented, combining morphological and DNA sequence data in a total evidence framework. It is based on 77 robber fly species, 11 Asiloidea outgroup species, 211 morphological characters of the adult fly, and approximately 7300 bp of nuclear DNA from five genes (18S and 28S rDNA, AATS, CAD, and EF-1α protein-encoding DNA). The equally weighted, simultaneous parsimony analysis under dynamic homology in POY resulted in a single most parsimonious cladogram with a cost of 27,582 (iterative pass optimization; 27,703 under regular direct optimization). Six of the 12 included subfamily taxa are recovered as monophyletic. Trigonomiminae, previously always considered as monophyletic based on morphology, is shown to be non-monophyletic. Two of the three Trigonomiminae genera, Holcocephala Jaennicke, 1867 and Rhipidocephala Hermann, 1926, group unexpectedly as the sister taxon to all other Asilidae. Laphriinae, previously seen in the latter position, is the sister group of the remaining Asilidae. Five other subfamily taxa, i.e. Brachyrhopalinae, Dasypogoninae, Stenopogoninae, Tillobromatinae, and Willistonininae, are also shown to be non-monophyletic. The phylogenetic relationships among the higher-level taxa are partly at odds with findings of a recently published morphological study based on more extensive taxon sampling. The total evidence hypothesis is considered as the most informative one, but the respective topologies from the total-evidence, morphology-only, and molecular-only analyses are compared and contrasted in order to discuss the signals from morphological versus molecular data, and to analyze whether the molecular data outcompete the fewer morphological characters. A clade Apioceridae+Mydidae is corroborated as the sister taxon to Asilidae.
Received: 09 January 2009 / Accepted: 20 March 2009
Chromosome numbers and karyotypes within the Ranunculus alpestris-group (Ranunculaceae)Download PDFAbstract
The Ranunculus alpestris-group comprises six white-flowered species growing in mostly alpine zones of central and southern European mountains. They all are diploid with 2n=16 chromosomes. The common karyotype of the group was established based on 75 metaphases (6–26 metaphases per species). The haploid karyotype consists of four metacentric (chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 7) and four more or less subtelocentric chromosomes (2, 4, 5, 8). This karyotype is similar to that of other white-flowered European Ranunculus species as well as the yellow-flowered R. thora-group. Analysis of karyotypes partly confirms relationships inferred from molecular phylogenies. Species with this karyotype are placed on rather basal branches in existing phylogenies, which may indicate that this karyotype is primitive within the genus Ranunculus.
Received: 21 November 2006 / Accepted: 16 June 2008
Draconematidae (Nematoda) from cold-water corals in the Porcupine Seabight: The genus Cygnonema Allen & Noffsinger, 1978Download PDFAbstract
Two new and closely related species of the genus Cygnonema Allen & Noffsinger, 1978 are described from a cold-water coral degradation zone in the Porcupine Seabight (NE Atlantic). Both species differ from C. steineri Allen & Noffsinger, 1978 by more pronounced pharyngeal and posterior swellings, a smaller body, a shorter pharynx in relation to body length, a higher number of CAT, and by the absence of a dorsal tooth. Cygnonema verum sp. n. differs from C. belgicae sp. n. by its greater body length, the relatively larger head capsule, a higher number of CAT, a more anteriorly positioned anteriormost laterodorsal CAT, a higher number of PAT, by the external labial sensilla being setiform, a higher number of subcephalic setae, and by a more anterior position of the amphidial fovea on the head capsule. Males of C. verum sp. n. are easily recognised by the presence of two large subventral, precloacal corniform setae. They also differ from males of C. belgicae sp. n. in the smaller amount of cytoplasm in the sperm cells, a knob-like capitulum, and a relatively shorter tail tip. The diagnosis of Cygnonema is emended, a dichotomic identification key to the three species is provided, and their biogeography is discussed.
Received: 23 June 2008 / Accepted: 24 October 2008
Phylogenetic relationships of a new species of pseudoxyrhophiine snake (Reptilia: Lamprophiidae: Thamnosophis) suggest a biogeographical link between western and northern MadagascarDownload PDFAbstract
We describe a new species of the pseudoxyrhophiine snake genus Thamnosophis from a dry forest of the karstic massif Tsingy de Bemaraha in central western Madagascar. Thamnosophis mavotenda sp. n. is characterised by 19 dorsal scale rows, 188 ventrals, 110 subcaudals, and by colouration (e.g. yellow head sides). Morphological and molecular phylogenetic data indicate that the species is most closely related to the recently described Thamnosophis martae from the far north of the island which inhabits dry karstic forest and subhumid lowland rainforest. This species pair represents a well-supported example of a sister-group relationship in snakes between northern Madagascar and the Tsingy de Bemaraha plateau, and corroborates preliminary observations in other reptile species. We discuss this finding in the light of recent hypotheses on the biogeographic zonation of Madagascar.
Received: 01 December 2008 / Accepted: 27 January 2009
Mitochondrial diversity of European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) in Anatolia and the Ponto-Caspian Region: Multiple old refuges, hotspot of extant diversification and critically endangered endemicsDownload PDFAbstract
The European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758), is one of the world's most widely distributed chelonian species. We investigated its mitochondrial phylogeography and demography using ∼1300cyt b sequences from the entire range, with a focus on the eastern part, in particular on Turkey, where the species currently suffers massive losses. Coloration data from >1450 turtles were compared with mtDNA differentiation to assess the validity of the currently accepted subspecies from Turkey, the Black Sea Region, the Transcaucasus, and Iran. Our study region harbors considerable part of the mtDNA diversity of Emys, including a newly discovered lineage and 16 new haplotypes. In this area corresponding to approximately one-third of the entire distribution range, six out of the ten mitochondrial lineages and about half of all 72 haplotypes occur. Two mitochondrial lineages (VIII, X) are confined to small ranges along the southern coast of Turkey, another lineage (I) occupies the remainder of Turkey, the entire Black Sea Region, and the north-eastern part of the species’ range. In the south-western corner of the Black Sea and in the Aegean Region, two lineages (II, IV) occur that have their main distribution areas farther west. In the Transcaucasus and northern Iran, another endemic lineage (VII) is found. Lineage I is the largest and most diverse of all lineages and has its greatest diversity in Anatolia. Phylogeographic and demographic data suggest Anatolia as an ancient glacial refuge for turtles harboring mitochondrial lineages I, VIII and X, and that Anatolia and the Black Sea coasts constitute a hotspot for a younger burst of diversification within lineage I. These two regions correspond to the glacial refuge from which lineage I turtles recolonized more northerly parts of the range in the Holocene; lineage II represents an off-shoot of lineage I that became isolated in a westward-located refuge in the south-eastern Balkans during a previous Pleistocene glacial. Our data on coloration indicate that such characters have only limited value for delineating evolutionarily significant units. We propose to reduce the number of subspecies using mtDNA lineages as arbiter, and to recognize three subspecies as valid in Turkey, the Black Sea Region, the Transcaucasus and Iran: Emys orbicularis orbicularis (mtDNA lineage I); E. o. eiselti Fritz et al., 1998 (X); and E. o. persica Eichwald, 1831 (VII). However, the southern Turkish lineage VIII most probably represents an additional undescribed subspecies. Both southern Turkish endemics are critically endangered, with only three surviving populations of fewer than 30 adults each. We recommend establishing sanctuaries for them, and including them in the IUCN Red List.
Received: 09 June 2008 / Accepted: 06 November 2008
Phylogenetic relationships of the Aurantioideae (Rutaceae) based on the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region and three noncoding chloroplast DNA regions, atpB-rbcL spacer, rps16, and trnL-trnFDownload PDFAbstract
The tribes and subtribes of Aurantioideae, an economically important subfamily of the Rutaceae, have a controversial taxonomic history because a phylogenetic framework has been lacking. In order to construct an evolutionary history and evaluate the most recent classification system [Swingle and Reece 1967. The botany of Citrus and its wild relatives, in: The Citrus Industry, vol. 1, History, World Distribution, Botany, and Varieties. University of California, Berkeley, pp. 190–430], one nuclear and three noncoding chloroplast genes were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically along with selected non-molecular characters. Taxa representing tribes Citreae and Clauseneae and their six subtribes were sampled. In all analyses Aurantioideae is monophyletic. The majority-rule consensus tree from the combined analysis indicates that the two tribes are not monophyletic. The combined topology is not congruent with the widely used classification of Aurantioideae by Swingle and Reece (1967). The tribes and subtribes are in need of revision.
Received: 19 February 2005 / Accepted: 12 March 2009
Revision of the earthworm genus Archipheretima Michaelsen (Clitellata: Megascolecidae), with descriptions of new species from Luzon and Catanduanes Islands, PhilippinesDownload PDFAbstract
A revision of Archipheretima (Clitellata: Megascolecidae) based on all available type material and the description of five new species modifies the genus diagnosis in the following points: Archipheretima have calciferous lamellar regions of the esophagus in the region of segments xi–xiii, paired supraesophageal vessels with connectives to the calciferous lamellae, hearts of xiii attached post-septally, multiple paired dorsolateral intestinal caeca, and usually very sparse dorsal setae. Blue coloration is common to all the species described, and probably to the other known species. Non-Philippine species previously assigned to the genus are excluded by this diagnosis; as a result, the new combinations Polypheretima picta (Michaelsen, 1892) and P. beccarii (Cognetti, 1909) are proposed. The new species are named Archipheretima gritzae, A. middletoni, A. ricei, A. cofini, and A. pandanophila. They were collected only on Luzon Island, except A. gritzae which also occurs on Catanduanes. The redefined Archipheretima is a biogeographically and morphologically homogenous taxon.
Received: 16 October 2008 / Accepted: 04 February 2009
Origin and evolution of alternative developmental strategies in amphibious sarcopterygian parasites (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea, Polystomatidae)Download PDFAbstract
Most integrative studies involving phylogenetic, developmental and ecological trends showed that the diversity of developmental modifications among the Platyhelminthes was linked to transmission opportunity pressures. For parasitic flatworms with complex life cycles it was suggested that the evolutionary forces that constrained or enhanced developmental strategies implied heterochronic patterns. Similar patterns were also reported from the Monogenea with direct life cycles, especially for Polystomatidae, which infest amphibious Sarcopterygians. Polystoma, whose members are recovered almost exclusively from anuran hosts of the Neobatrachia, is capable of following two alternative developmental strategies depending on the physiological stage of its host. Processes by which parasites reach maturity are strikingly different, and lead to discrete adult phenotypes within the same parasite species. In the present study, we investigate the origin and evolution of developmental patterns of polystomatids in a phylogenetic framework, using an integrative approach of heterochrony and evolutionary ecology. The results suggest that both phenotypes have coexisted during the early stages of polystome evolution, and that neither of them can be considered as the ancestral one. The two developmental pathways, each associated with one life cycle, may have arisen independently prior to polystome diversification, when strictly aquatic sarcopterygians attempted colonization of temporary freshwater environments. The occurrence of these two patterns within species of the genus Polystoma is suggested to reflect the ancestral condition, and to have allowed both developmental strategies to be successful depending on shifts in transmission opportunities. Thus, host evolutionary ecology may be the main factor in shaping developmental strategies within polystomatids.